Equally at ease in Downloaded by [University of Cambridge] at For him, the permissiveness of the Mongolian state with regard to hate speech was not simply a symptom of weakness or an indication of democracy. But twice I was made bankrupt because of the pressure I face. What these interviews and informal chats highlighted was the high level of integration of these Chinese residents within Mongolian society and general acceptance at the local level. These personal accounts are remarkable insofar as they show China and Chinese men in a very different light.

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baterdene mongol nutagta

As such, they can strategize and negotiate personal niches while remaining implicitly aligned with national and communal concerns. In this last example, the disciplinary arm of national morality is Downloaded by [University of Cambridge] at More to the point, the assumption made here is that the readers, as Mongols, have the natural desire to kill the Chinese, thereby indirectly equating Mongolianness with Sinophobia. Any substantial or systematic reproduction, redistribution, reselling, loan, sub-licensing, systematic supply, or distribution in any form to anyone is expressly forbidden.

Chinese dwelling with courtyard and buildings in adobe typical of eerdene China.

Photo by the author, July As a discursively embedded enunciative practice that largely excludes the Chinese from its intended audience, Sinophobia has become central to contemporary conceptualizations of Mongolianness. Asian Anthropology, Vol. On the Tea Road: His responses were typical and therefore rather surprising for me.

Well-educated, she speaks flawless Russian and her English is also excellent. Buryats, already positioned as somewhat liminal to Mongolianness prior to the socialist period Lattimore8are mostly considered as non-Mongols in contemporary Mongolia, monogl other groups, such as the Monchak of western Mongolia, lack any kind of formal recognition see Harrison Importantly, these vignettes show that the tendency to paint nationalist priorities as exclusively male endeavors poses the risk of constructing a framework in which women are assumed to be pacifist, social-welfare-oriented and apolitical Blee3.


This performative dimension offers new meanings to statements such as anti-Chinese ntagtaa speech,2 which, on the surface, first appears to be both normative and unreflective. If anti-Chinese speech is a speech act, nutagtqa may in fact be considered a form of indirect speech act in baat sense that it appears to be about the Chinese but is in effect directed at the Mongols themselves.

Mothers of the Nation: Graffiti, as textual signs embedded within the urban fabric of the city, can operate at various levels. The central position of the Halh majority group, as discussed in detail in Bulagis one such consequence.

Throughout the socialist and post-socialist period, China has often been used as a proxy for other kinds of dangers, many of them internal Erdembileg In fact, it was precisely because of this high integration that the existence of this Chinese neighborhood came to my attention so late in my fieldwork. This latter example is, I argue, especially erdeene.

Mongolian music: Horses, horses, horses

The media I monitored in the course of my research were not limited to newspapers, but included other cultural modes of expression such as films, graffiti, songs, and music videos.

Indeed, what the experience of Dulmaa clearly demonstrates is that while some women do bear the brunt of an ideology egdene on resistance against a common enemy, others participate fully and willingly in the nationalist project.

Anti-Chinese statements are thus more than a patriotic utterance: In practice, however, far more unions between Chinese and Mongols take place than are usually imagined. Thus, despite the widespread rumors concerning poisonous Chinese produce, Chinese restaurants are very popular in Ulaanbaatar, including with people who are most vocal about their anti-Chinese sentiments.


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The publisher shall not be liable for any loss, actions, claims, proceedings, demand, or costs or damages nutagta or howsoever caused arising directly or indirectly in connection with or arising out of the use of this material. University of California Press. Right-Wing Women in Weimar Germany. I was the first person to import Chinese goods, and a couple of years later other traders vat started doing the same, but they import from Erlian10 and the products are either fakes or they have expired and a new expiry date has been stuck onto the bottle.

Both for frdene and for the sex workers introduced earlier, despite the nationalist discourses painting the Chinese as ruthless exploiters, and warnings of other Mongols against fraternizing with them, the very pressure exerted by other Erdee is what causes them considerable distress. Her teenage son is even better integrated than she is. Asian Anthropology 7 But violence is not merely a by-product of national autonomy. Yet such relationships do occur. Also lacking sufficient visibility is the pervasiveness of marital violence.

These families, mostly hailing from the northern provinces of China but some coming from further south, have Figure 3.