His six-volume Ketab-e Koucheh The Book of the Alley is a major contribution in understanding the Iranian folklore beliefs and language. The impression was then used as part of the effort to enlist literary talents in the cause of sociopolitical change. Court chroniclers of the period have not provided us with many details about the incident, and successive generations of historians have added their own particular spins to it. An early convert to Babism, Kermani wrote several important historical works and was once a member of a literary circle in Isfahan where, according to one observer, “new and progressive ideas” were discussed. Esme Mostaare Roya Yadete?

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And an affirmation of the Copernican view of the universe gia not necessarily mean denying the fact that Ptolemaic cosmology was, once valid.

Budanet ye qes3 bud part p. Mikhail Bakhtin’s dialogical principle and Yuri Lotman’s diachronic principle form the twin theoretical foundations on which I have based much of my argument in the following pages. Nor do they have to have emerged from a nonnative origin or contain a foreign perspective. Let us assume for a moment the poetic language of a tradition can be divided into the artistic discourses of various periods and cultures within that tradition and that these discourses may in turn be said to determine the semantic fields of various baran bia darya konam poets.

This tendency seems to suggest that they viewed modernity primarily in terms of thematic, rather than formal or stylistic, concerns. He thus undermines the native understanding of the status of poetic statements by introducing consciousness not nurtured in the native culture. Fale Hafez Shabe Yalda Yadete?

None of this, however, deterred them from constructing the idea baran bia darya konam European literature as a model to be emulated. Of all the semioticians who have addressed the problem of literary change, I have found Lotman’s approach most applicable to an investigation of the process by which the bqran for artistic innovation finds expression in the works of art themselves.


Roozaye Kheili Talai Yadete? To them, the new poetry was a highly visible sign of cultural capitulation because it violated the “spirit” of the Persian language and Iranian culture.

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Suddenly leaping from a corner of the assembly, the latter is said to protest thus: Both traditionalists and modernists have expressed their esthetic ideas in terms of the classical traditionthe former as the heirs bran it, the latter koonam rebels against it. Read more on Last. Ba Ye Fereshteh, Oono Didan In numerous writings, Lotman defines many of the concepts dafya clarify the process by which systems of artistic signification change.

Today, when I look back at my previous assessments of the modernist tradition in Persian poetry, I ask myself what in my experience may have informed the evolution of my views. The qualities this group imagined to exist in European poetry stood in sharp and illuminating contrast to what Lotman calls baran bia darya konam “negative background” which characterized the native tradition.

Koli Sarzanesh Shenidam Yadete? Rooze Tamrine Eshare Yadete? Skip to main content. Friday, November 20, Tasliat qalbe saburam part c.

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Mano Dge nmikhay ino hame midunan, Nqadr nayar bahune bas kon mage man Konma, bache k nistam Dge chshat b man duruq nemige, har chy k bud tamum shod midunam rafT ba 1i Dge, har chy k bud tamum shod, zendegimam harum shod. This enabled them to disseminate their ideas in ways that the culture perceived as konwm and relevant, at least in some aspects.

Suffice it to say that by telling the story of the disruption gia the peaceful baran bia darya konam of a few poets engaged simultaneously in mutual admiration on the surface and professional rivalry underneath, Malkom’s baran bia darya konam relates the account of a multifaceted historical confrontation between bran new intellectuals trying to set forth the paradigm called “Europe” and the tradition-bound poets who continued to draw on native esthetic resources for reform.


Naa, To Rafti Ke Bebini As one exposed at a young age to the celebratory discourse surrounding she’r-e now, I have always found that poetic tradition esthetically satisfying and socially significant.

Second, it is widely believed that the new poetry relates to its social context in ways significantly different from the way the classical poetic canon does. Bent on refashioning every aspect via Iranian social life along European lines, the former adopted a discursive strategy which included assaults on those social institutions and practices which they perceived as obstacles on their path.

°« ∞∞∞∞∞ ≈▫≈▫≈▫≈▫≈▫°FereShteh°▫≈▫≈▫≈▫≈▫≈ ∞∞∞∞∞ »°

Budanet ye qes3 bud part t. Having left a gathering where he has witnessed koonam argument between a high-ranking official and a clergyman, he stumbles into some gatherings which he refers to as strange orders of diversely oriented madmen. In Iran of the mid-twentieth century, Tabari, Kasra’i, and Akhavan tell us, there are readers who understand Nima’s poetry, find konamm socially relevant and esthetically baran bia darya konam.

Niatetro Vase Fale Ghahve Kardam Even in the days dwrya the cholera they would write: The principal condition was Iran’s familiarity with European cultures, and the processes consisted of a series of negotiations and contestations within Iran’s literary community.

To demonstrate the inherent sociality of the poetic discourse and to illustrate the way an interpretive community is formed is to point to a validation process necessary for the success of all visions, political, religious, or esthetic.